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What’s the best cbd oil for pain and anxiety

Best CBD Oil for Anxiety – Reviews

About CBDfx
CBDfx was founded by Ali Esmaili and Jameson Rodgers in 2014. They came together with a vision that everyone should have access to the many benefits of CBD. They’ve spent close to a decade growing from their roots in San Fernando Valley, California and have become the second largest privately held CBD company in the world.

CBD Oil Options
CBDfx has three primary tinctures: one for sleep, one for wellness, and a calming tincture. The potencies range between 500 milligrams of CBD up to 6000 milligrams of CBD for two out of the three tinctures. The sleep and calming tinctures include CBN while the wellness tincture swaps out CBN for CBG. Bundle them all to enjoy the benefits of each formula or choose the morning and night tincture set so you’re supported around the clock.

Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
CBDfx always has sales you can make the most of – when you purchase one item, you get 15% off, when you purchase two items, you can enjoy 20% off, and when you’re buying three or more items, you get 25% off your total. The cost of individual tinctures ranges between $39.99 to $199.99 depending on the type and strength of the product. Shipping is free on orders over $35 and you may even qualify for interest-free payments with Sezzle.

2. Green Roads – Runner Up

Pros:

  • Full-spectrum CBD oil
  • Vegan friendly
  • Zero artificial ingredients
  • American farmed hemp

Cons:

  • May sell out sometimes due to popularity

About Green Roads
Green Roads began on a foundation of friendship, career-risking, and faith. Laura Fuentes founded Green Roads with a focused mission to develop formulations that have brought the company to the forefront of the CBD market today. Laura spent over two decades as a licensed compounding pharmacist working to improve the health of her community and decided to take this leap of faith to push for stricter requirements and more transparency, so consumers have a trustworthy brand to turn to.

CBD Oil Options
Green Roads carries a wide variety of best CBD oil for anxiety options, including broad-spectrum CBD and full-spectrum CBD oil options. The hot seller is the full-spectrum CBD oil (1500 milligrams). This best CBD oil for anxiety doesn’t contain artificial colors or flavors and contains enough CBD oil for a 30-day supply. If you prefer flavored CBD, you can try the apple kiwi bliss flavored CBD oil or the mint breeze flavored CBD oil. Check each of the formulas offered, as some are formulated specifically for sleep while other options include broad-spectrum CBD for use any time and as needed.

Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
The cost of CBD products ranges from $44.99 to $149.99 depending on the strength, which starts at 10 milligrams per milliliter. If you subscribe for regular deliveries, you can get 30% off your first order and 15% off every subsequent order. Subscriptions also include free shipping on every order. When you refer a friend, you can give them 40% off and get $25.00 as a thank you!

3. Extract Labs – Honorable Mention

Pros:

  • American grown hemp
  • Third-party lab tested
  • Certified vegan CBD oil
  • 60-day money back guarantee

Cons:

  • You must spend at least $60 to qualify for free shipping

About Extract Labs
Extract Labs was founded by veteran Craig Henderson who became intrigued by the medicinal application of cannabis to help with post traumatic stress disorder and other conditions often experienced by vets. However, the psychoactive effects of cannabis presented an obstacle in the research, but as he continued with his inquiry, he came across the medicinal effects of CBD. After witnessing the benefits with his community of veterans, he set out on his mission. He started experimenting in his garage and grew his efforts into the thriving CBD company Extract Labs is today.

CBD Oil Options
Extract Labs offers several CBD tincture formulas, including some new products. Choose between CBD products, including PM with CBD for sleep, relief formula with CBD, daily support with full-spectrum CBD, cognitive support with CBG, and flavored full-spectrum options. They have CBD isolate, broad-spectrum CBD, and full-spectrum products so you can find a product that meets your needs.

Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
You can trade your email to receive 15% off when you first visit the Extract Labs website. The flavored best CBD oil for anxiety tinctures are priced at $50.00 and the prices range upward to $85.00 and $99.00 per tincture. When you spend at least $60.00, you qualify for free shipping on your order so if you’re interested in maximizing savings, make sure to stock up on your order.

4. CBDistillery – Pure CBD Oils On Sale

Pros:

  • US hemp authority certified
  • Subscribe and save
  • 60-day money back guarantee
  • Natural farming practices

Cons:

  • Free shipping available for order over $75.00

About CBDistillery
CBDistillery operates with one primary vision: to bring CBD to the world. Along with their vision, they have a focused mission: to provide you with an alternative path to a healthy and balanced life. Their organization operates with a set of values that include accountability, teamwork, respect, and a collective drive to succeed. Founded in 2016 in Colorado, CBDistillery has emerged as one of the largest, fastest-growing, and cost-effective CBD brands in the market today.

CBD Oil Options
When you visit the CBDistillery website, you’ll see several CBD tinctures for sale made from organic hemp. They offer full-spectrum CBD oil tinctures formulated for relief and relaxation and sleep tinctures that incorporate CBN to help improve sleep quality. The strength ranges from 450 milligrams of CBD to their maximum strength option at 5000 milligrams of CBD. Most of their products have a natural, earthy flavor but if you prefer a fruity flavor, you’ll love their mango tincture.

Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
You can save 25% off your first order when you sign up to receive news and special announcements from CBDistillery. You can also save 20% and enjoy free shipping when you subscribe to regular deliveries. Simply choose the frequency between four weeks up to 12 weeks.

5. Charlotte’s Web – Highly Reputable

Pros:

  • USDA organic hemp options
  • US hemp authority certified
  • USA grown hemp
  • CO2 extracted formulas

Cons:

  • Color of CBD oil may vary from batch to batch (this is due to the natural ingredients)

About Charlotte’s Web
Charlotte’s Web blends compassion with science to unleash the healing powers of botanicals and deliver the many benefits of CBD to the world. They are certified as a B corp, which means they prioritize integrity and respect to ensure their efforts are always used as a force for good. Founded in 2014, they have created philanthropic partnerships to ensure they stay in line with their commitment “to better the planet and the people living upon it.”

CBD Oil Options
Charlotte’s Web offers a variety of different options, carefully categorized to help you decide. For example, if you’re a newbie, look for the words “Start your CBD routine here” and you’ll be taken to the product page for their 17 milligrams per one milliliter option. If you’re already a seasoned CBD user, you may appreciate more potent products and if you’re only interested in CBD oil that doesn’t include THC, choose the THC-free tincture.

Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
Charlotte’s Web CBD oil tinctures are crafted with care, with their most potent tincture containing 60 milligrams per one milliliter. Look toward the top of the webpage to discover available discount codes that provide you with 15% off a single item. If you subscribe, you can save 20% and if you’re interested in paying over the course of four interest-free payments, you can use Sezzle to help!

6. CBD American Shaman – High Bioavailability

Pros:

  • Water-soluble CBD oil
  • CBD and terpene rich options
  • Third-party lab tested
  • American grown hemp

Cons:

  • Lower CBD concentration than other brands

About CBD American Shaman
CBD American Shaman was founded with a mission to bring wellness to the world through ultra-concentrated terpene rich CBD oils. They prioritize following the best industry standards and have developed a proprietary nanotechnology that makes their products 9X more bioavailable than other products on the market. They’ve developed a Compassionate Care program, which is meant to offer discounts to people in need, including those with low income along with veterans.

CBD Oil Options
CBD American Shaman has several tinctures, including water soluble full-spectrum CBD oil and terpene rich hemp CBD oil. If you’re interested in extra strength, choose their top rated water soluble tincture that contains 900 milligrams of CBD per 30 milliliter bottle. It’s available in natural and lemon flavor. They have recently added products to their offerings, including VG cloud tinctures available in a variety of tasty flavors like apple, blueberry moon, cherry limeade, grape, and tutti-frutti among others!

Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
Prices for their CBD oils range from $14.99 for a five milliliter bottle to $89.99 for the extra strength 30 milliliter bottle. Keep in mind that prices go up the stronger the CBD concentration. You can select the THC content for your tincture and select the flavor and strength to customize your purchase. If you purchase $99.00 or more, shipping is free, otherwise you can use the “estimate shipping” tool to give you an idea of shipping costs for orders under $99.00.

7. Receptra Naturals – Daytime Option

Pros:

  • 30-day satisfaction guarantee
  • Get 15% off your first order
  • Pleasant flavor infusions
  • Multiple tincture sized available

Cons:

  • All sizes contain 25 milligrams per dose

About Receptra Naturals
Receptra Naturals was founded by Rusty Scott who describes his guiding principle as “the truth is curative”. Since their beginnings in 2015, they have worked toward creating effective CBD products that customers can rely on. They’ve helped to solve serious problems for thousands of their customers – all based on the foundation of delivering truth through transparent products that are always all-natural, plant-based, and with carefully selected ingredients. Rusty built this company after he fell and hurt his knee during a snowstorm – pain ensued for months. After trying dozens of products, he finally turned to CBD for lasting relief.

CBD Oil Options
Receptra Naturals offers three tinctures. One is meant for relaxation with a lavender infusion, another is formulated for rest with a chamomile infusion, and the third is designed for relief with a turmeric infusion. They’re each available in three sizes: 0.5 ounce, 1 ounce, and 2 ounces. Flavors include ginger lime and vanilla, peppermint, and chamomile.

Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
The 0.5 ounce tincture costs $44.99, the one ounce tincture is $84.99, and the two ounce tincture is $149.99. Standard US shipping is free on all your orders and when you subscribe, you save 25% off every order, receive every fifth order free, and gain reward points with each order.

8. Five CBD – Customer Favorite

Pros:

  • Full-spectrum CBD + THC
  • Citrus and mint chocolate flavors
  • Up to 6000 milligrams
  • Subscribe and save

Cons:

  • Packaging prevents you from seeing contents

About Five CBD
Five CBD was founded to set a new standard for the best CBD oils and CBD products in order to leverage the wide range of the entire hemp plant’s advantages, rather than focusing exclusively on CBD. They created CBD products that include terpenes, flavonoids, and minor cannabinoids at high levels. The name Five comes from their commitment to employing all elements of the hemp plant in a 5:1 ratio that provides a wide range of advantages for you to fall in love with.

CBD Oil Options
Five CBD’s tinctures are available in two flavors, including citrus and mint chocolate and they’re also available in three concentrations: 1500 milligrams, 3000 milligrams, and 6000 milligrams. Along with the concentration of CBD, you can also expect a corresponding concentration of THC. For example, the 3000 milligrams of CBD are complemented by 70 milligrams of THC. Keep in mind that there is an 18+ warning for Five CBD full-spectrum products.

Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
You can subscribe and save 30% on your orders. For example, if you purchase the citrus flavored tincture at 1500 milligrams of CBD, the total cost for a one-time purchase is $49.99 but if you choose to subscribe, your total goes down to $34.99. Shipping is calculated at check-out.

9. Jupiter CBD – Small Batch CBD Oils

Pros:

  • USDA certified organic CBD oils
  • Grown and made in the USA
  • Small batch and single origin
  • Triple lab tested CBD oil

Cons:

  • May not be appropriate for pregnant or nursing women

About Jupiter CBD
Jupiter CBD has gone to great lengths to make the life of their customers better. They only use 100% USDA certified organic hemp and other organic ingredients in all their products. Their aim is to act intentionally, which is why they partner with a single family farm to keep the quality of their products high and easily traceable. To set themselves apart from other CBD brands, they also only extract their CBD from flowers only. To confirm the purity, strength, and quality, they triple lab test.

CBD Oil Options
Jupiter organic CBD drops are formulated to help you feel calm, focused, and happy. Stress can exacerbate anxiety disorders and when you have an organic, mint-flavored CBD tincture to turn to, you experience relief from stress and discomfort. This tincture is available in three concentrations: 450 milligrams, 900 milligrams, and 1350 milligrams.

Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
The medium strength option at 900 milligrams is priced at $89.00 and you can choose to purchase for that one-time cost, or you can choose to subscribe to monthly deliveries and save 10%. Shipping is always free and if you need to return the product, returns are free too. In fact, they offer a 30-day risk-free trial so if it’s your first time, you can purchase with confidence.

10. Smile CBD – Top CBD Oil Products

Pros:

  • No hemp aftertaste
  • 30-day satisfaction guaranteed
  • Best CBD oils with tasty flavors
  • Subscribe and save

Cons:

  • Free shipping unavailable outside the US

About Smile CBD
Anxiety disorders have a way of keeping you from feeling present in your life – even your smiles turn into frowns. Smile CBD created products so that you could experience life with a sense of ease, appreciation and presence. They designed CBD products to help you stay in a state free of discomfort, so they could help bring more smiles into your day to day life experience. When you’re able to sink into your smile fully, your immune system is boosted, and the anxiety disorders that normally dominate your days fade into the background.

CBD Oil Options
Smile CBD has several CBD oils to help you manage any type of anxiety disorders. The top favorite for those seeking relief from discomfort is the Unwind organic CBD product that incorporates 5-HTP and melatonin to help you relax and sink into deep sleep after your long days. The standard strength is 500 milligrams of CBD and the full strength is 1000 milligrams of CBD. You can choose between the French vanilla flavor and the mint bliss flavor.

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Cost, Discounts, and Shipping
The cost of each tincture is $50.00 for a on-time purchase and $42.50 if you choose to subscribe for regular deliveries. That’s a savings of 15% off your orders. You can expect your CBD oils to arrive within one to three days!

How to Choose the Right CBD Oil for Anxiety Disorders

The baseline for choosing the right CBD oil for anxiety is third-party lab testing. Without this step, you can’t be sure about what CBD oils you’re getting. So, when shopping, choose from any of the reputable CBD oil options we list in this article; they each have high standards when it comes to independent lab testing. You can easily access the Certificate of Analysis (COA) for each batch and can review how much CBD and THC are contained within the product. Additionally, you can review what contaminants they test for to confirm purity.

After you’ve confirmed independent lab tests, you can decide based on your personal preferences. If you don’t mind the natural taste of CBD oil, you can scratch flavors off your list. However, if you’d prefer a CBD oil with a fruity or lighter flavor than the natural hemp flavor, you may want to opt for a flavored CBD oil to help you get it down more easily.

Think about the time of day you need CBD oil for anxiety the most. If your anxiety spikes during the day, choose CBD oils with a lower CBD concentration level that you can take as needed for daytime activities. If your anxiety spikes at night and keeps you awake after your bedtime, choose a formula that incorporates additional sleep aides, like melatonin or CBN.

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains additional cannabinoids and terpenes, which increase the strength and efficacy of the product. However, if you prefer not to have even minute traces of THC in your system, choose a CBD isolate product that filters out the additional cannabinoids and terpenes.

Effectiveness of CBD On Anxiety Disorders

Research for CBD’s effectiveness with anxiety is ongoing and there are several studies we can point to that show the incredible potential of CBD on easing the symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder as well as other more specific anxiety conditions. Currently, the medical intervention for anxiety includes cognitive behavioral therapy and anti-anxiety medications, like benzodiazepines.

Anti-anxiety medications, though effective, are accompanied by several side effects that leave users wondering if there are alternatives. For example, the addictive quality of anti-anxiety medications is a concern for many, particularly for those who have a history of addiction in their family or in their own lives. Additionally, some people report a dissociated feeling that keeps them from feeling present in their lives. For these among many other reasons, CBD continued to be a point of interest for researchers.

CBD is known to create calming effects in those who suffer from anxiety. Along with endless anecdotal evidence found throughout the internet, there have been several studies conducted that outline the potential of CBD oil when it comes to anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and more. Anxiety brings up a variety of symptoms, including increased heart rate, nausea, and trembling.

With more severe anxiety disorders, like panic disorder and post traumatic stress disorder, symptoms may include flashbacks, insomnia, and nightmares. There is evidence that CBD has the potential of extracting aversive memories and blocking their recreation.

Along with working toward the alleviation of symptoms associated with post traumatic stress disorder, CBD, when paired expertly with additional ingredients like melatonin, can help with improving sleep quality. It delivers a calming effect for the central nervous system without triggering any kind of “high” or psychoactive effect, and has been confirmed as an effective product for reducing anxiety and improving sleep quality.

How Do I Use CBD Oil?

CBD oil is designed to be taken orally, underneath your tongue for the fastest absorption. If you’re looking to reduce symptoms associated with anxiety quickly, this method is your best bet. While it can also be poured into a drink or onto food, the best way to take it is beneath your tongue.

Start by confirming the recommended dose on the product’s packaging. Most of the time, it’s a dropper full but always double check to be sure – each formula varies along with the potency of each dose. Since CBD oil contains natural ingredients that may settle while stored, be sure to shake the bottle thoroughly before administering your dose.

Once you’ve checked the recommended dose and have shaken the contents thoroughly, go ahead and measure out your dose using the provided dropper. Empty the contents of the dropper underneath your tongue – if you’re a newbie with this, use a mirror to make sure you don’t spill! Once the CBD oil is underneath your tongue, hold it there for at least a minute. Once you’ve held it there for the recommended time, go ahead and swallow the CBD oil!

CBD Oil Dosage for Anxiety

Here’s where things may get a tiny bit tricky. That’s because how CBD works with your body may differ from how it works with your partner’s or neighbor’s body. It’s also dependent on the symptoms you’re looking to alleviate. For example, if you’re looking for the perfect nighttime dose, it may take a few tries before you find the sweet spot that sends you off into sweeter dreams.

If your anxiety is mild and you’re looking for a good daily dose you can count on, the dosage may be different than if you’re working toward calming down before, during, or after a panic attack when your nervous system is still raging. Consider why you’re administering your dose and the time of day you’re administering it as well. Start with the recommended dose on the product’s packaging and make adjustments as necessary as you learn how CBD affects your body. Once you come upon that perfect dose, you’re all set!

Is CBD Legal?

In 2018, the Farm Bill was passed, which allowed for the legalization of CBD products. This is because hemp was removed as a controlled substance and hemp became legal to grow on US soil. Additionally, THC may be included in CBD products, so long as it is less than 0.03%. You’ll notice most products list the amount of THC included in each product and some CBD products are formulated with zero THC to meet the needs of those who prefer not to have any traces of THC in their system. To summarize, CBD products are legal both to sell and buy in most states; however, it’s important to consult with your state’s laws to ensure you are abiding by existing regulations.

Conclusion

In these moments, you’d give anything to make it stop. You might turn to a favorite podcast to let the sound of other voices quiet your inner dialogue or you might turn to a prescription bottle you shake pleadingly, releasing a dose of relief while ignoring the side effects. You might throw on your running shoes and head out the door – rain or shine – to shake off the heaviness of the anxiety.

You have plenty of choices when it comes to choosing CBD. There is broad-spectrum CBD, full-spectrum CBD, flavored and unflavored options, and a wide range of potencies to choose from. Expect some trial and error, particularly if you’re dealing with generalized anxiety disorder or other disorders within the spectrum, and give yourself the grace and time you need to find the perfect dose. Once you land on that sweet spot, you’ll revel in the many benefits of CBD.

Best CBD Oil for Pain Relief & Inflammation: Highest Quality Brands On The Market

Over the past three years, CBD oil has become increasingly popular as a health and wellness supplement.

One of the main reasons people are interested in trying CBD oil is because of its pain-killing benefits. We’ll get into the details of how CBD is suggested to help with pain later, along with some suggestions for the best CBD oils for pain and inflammation.

The ability for CBD to help with pain is a significant advantage over conventional pain management options — which often involve addictive and potentially harmful medications. Instead, this natural supplement has very few side effects and an exceptional safety profile — all without compromising on effectiveness.

But how do you choose the right CBD oil for the job?

This is an important question to ask because the truth of the matter is that not all CBD oils work. Many simply contain too little CBD to be of any help, while others contain harmful contaminants like heavy metals, pesticides, or chemical solvents — all of which could add to the pain you’re already experiencing by damaging the sensitive nerve cells around the body.

We’re going to cover all of this in the article below. You’ll learn how to spot a high-quality CBD oil and how current evidence shows CBD to work inside the body.

This is a big topic, so let’s get started with our list of top-rated CBD oils for pain.

Top 10 Best CBD Oil Brands for Pain Management in 2022

Not sure which CBD oil to buy to help with chronic pain? Before we get into the nitty-gritty of how CBD is suggested to work for pain and inflammation, here’s our top 5 list of CBD oils I’ve used myself for back pain.

We’ll also offer some advice on a few ways you can spot a trustworthy CBD vendor even if they didn’t quite make it onto our list.

I’ve been using CBD for over 5 years now and I’ve stumbled upon some stellar companies with top-notch oils and fly-by-night businesses with oils that can’t simply don’t work.

I have a relatively short list of CBD brands that I fully trust and I want to share my choices with you so you can avoid some of the headaches and disappointment I’ve already endured.

Here are my top 10 CBD oil brands for pain:

1. Royal CBD (Best CBD Oil On The Market)

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 250 – 2500 mg
Available Flavors Natural, Mint, Vanilla, Berry
Potency 8.3 – 83.3 mg/mL

Get 15% off all Royal CBD products. Use code “CFAH” at checkout.

Why Royal CBD is My Top Pick:

As skeptical as I am towards the majority of new CBD brands, I decided to give Royal CBD a try because I liked the company’s dedication to quality. I love seeing companies that take what they do seriously.

You can tell right away from the color, flavor, and consistency of the oil that you’re dealing with a product well above average.

This oil is cheaper than most of the other premium CBD oils I’ve tried, comes in a full range of potencies, and uses some of the best full-spectrum hemp extracts I’ve ever seen. I’ve heard friends using this brand for quite some time and decided to give it a try for myself — so I ordered a few bottles in different strengths.

After taking the Royal CBD’s 2500mg full-spectrum CBD oil for just over a week, I noticed an improvement in my back pain. There was a time when I had serious problems falling asleep because of the sharp pains in my back that seemed to intensify whenever I laid down to fall asleep. It was a nightmare. I’d lay awake for hours changing positions to try and find a spot that didn’t leave me writhing in discomfort.

With this oil, my experience went far beyond what I expected. Not only did it help ease the pain, but my overall quality of sleep improved. I mean, I didn’t sleep longer but I began to wake up rested and with a clear head.

My favorite combination for this particular oil is the vanilla in the 1000 mg bottle. This is the largest potency option currently offered by Royal CBD and has the best value overall. I took the oil twice per day, once in the morning when I woke up, and again in the evening before bed. One bottle of the 1000 mg CBD oil lasted me about a month.

  • Sourced from US-grown organic hemp
  • Extracted with supercritical CO2
  • Contains the full spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes
  • Available in 4 different strengths
  • Up to 2500mg of CBD per bottle
  • Lab-tested for potency and purity
  • Great natural flavors (no aftertaste and comes in multiple flavor options)
  • Free shipping within the USA
  • Newer brand on the market that only sells online, no physical presence

2. Gold Bee (Best Organic CBD Oil)

  • Premium Colorado-grown hemp
  • CO2 extraction
  • Contains full-spectrum CBD
  • Delicious kiwi flavor
  • Sweetened with organic honey
  • Lab-tested for potency and purity
  • Only one flavored option available
  • No high-strength oils (yet)

What I Like About Gold Bee:

I honestly believe Gold Bee makes the best organic CBD products out there. The brand combines premium Colorado-grown hemp with organic honey sourced from the Brazillian Rainforest. While Gold Bee offers a modest selection of oils — with up to 1200 mg of CBD per bottle — the formula is spot-on when it comes to the quality of ingredients. I’m totally not going to complain about the potency, as my back pain and sleep quality got better than with some high-strength oils I’ve tried in the past. Considering the quality of these products, they actually come at a bargain price. If you want to try other formats from Gold Bee, you can choose between its high-strength capsules and CBD-infused honey.

3. CBDPure (Runner Up)

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 100 – 600 mg
Available Flavors None
Potency 1.6 – 10 mg/mL
What I Like About CBDPure CBD Oil:

I love how transparent this company is. If I were judging companies solely by their transparency level, CBDPure would have scored the second place, right after Royal CBD. The company provides all the details about each stage of production when making this CBD oil. You can find all the third-party lab test results for each batch on the product page — something we’ve come to expect from any high-quality CBD company.

What really makes this company stand out is its incredible satisfaction guarantee. If you order the product and decide it wasn’t working for you, simply send it back and get a full refund. This satisfaction guarantee extends over 3 whole months — which is about three times longer than the industry average.

I keep a bottle or two of CBDPure oil in my medicine cabinet for achy moments after a run or hike with the kids.

The only real downside to this oil is the potency — which comes in denominations of 1.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL. This is suitable for more minor symptoms, but may not be enough for people with heavy CBD demands.

  • Sourced from Colorado-grown organic hemp
  • Extracted with supercritical CO2
  • Tested for the cannabinoid content and purity in a third-party lab
  • Rock-solid 90-day return policy
  • Narrow product range
  • Low potency
  • They don’t ship to every state (i.e. Louisiana, Indiana, Arkansas, Kansas)

4. HempBombs

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 300 – 4000 mg
Available Flavors Unflavored, Acai Berry, Orange Creamsicle, Peppermint, Watermelon
Potency 10 – 133.3 mg/mL
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What I Like About HempBombs:

I used HempBombs CBD isolate-based hemp oil for quite some time before switching to full-spectrum CBD oil and in my opinion, this is the best brand when it comes to CBD isolates. Their products contain 99% pure CBD and ZERO THC.

Now don’t get me wrong, CBD isolates are great, they offer consistent doses of CBD, contain 0% THC, and are generally cheaper than their full-spectrum counterparts. In most cases, I like using a full-spectrum extract like Royal CBD oil because of something called the entourage effect — which is a concept highlighting the phenomenon where cannabinoids like CBD tend to work better when other hemp-derived compounds are also present.

In isolates, the only cannabinoid present is CBD.

HempBombs CBD oil is available in five different strengths — from 300mg to 4000mg per bottle. The CBD is added in the form of a 99% pure isolate — which means there’s going to be virtually no traceable amounts of any other cannabinoids, including THC, CBC, CBG, or CBN.

You can also buy these oils in different flavors. Hemp Bombs often adds new flavors to the list, but my all-time personal favorite is the Acai berry. It’s not too sweet but adds a really pleasant flavor to the otherwise bland CBD and MCT oil formula.

  • Sourced from 100% certified organic hemp from European farms
  • Extracted with supercritical CO2
  • Completely THC-free
  • Tested in third-party laboratories for purity and potency
  • Available in 5 separate strengths
  • Up to 4000mg of CBD per bottle
  • Lacks the synergistic effects from other cannabinoids
  • The highest potencies are overkill for most users
  • Uses synthetic flavoring agents

5. CBDistillery

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 250 – 5000 mg
Available Flavors None
Potency 8.3 – 166 mg/mL
What I Like About CBDistillery:

CBDistillery is now one of the largest CBD companies in North America. The company began in 2016 as a legacy brand for Balanced Health Botanicals.

Over the years, CBDistillery has had the chance to really dial-in its CBD oil formula. The company now sells its CBD oil in two formats — “full-spectrum” and “THC-free.” The THC-free option is great for people who want to benefit from the synergy of CBD and other cannabinoids but without bringing any THC whatsoever into their system.

Even the full-spectrum option contains less than 0.3% THC — which is well below the amount needed to cause any psychoactive effects. These oils are both completely non-psychoactive.

You can choose between five different strengths, starting at 250mg up to 5000mg of CBD per bottle. This covers just about every range of potencies you would ever need. We recommend opting for the higher potency options because they have the best value overall. The higher potency you purchase, the further your dollar gets you.

The more potent options also las the longest because you need smaller amounts of the oil each time to get the desired dose of CBD.

I tried the 1000mg bottle to keep myself calm during the first few months after giving birth to my first son and I must admit it helped me maintain my sanity during that time. I found it to have a remarkable calming effect on the body and mind.

  • Available as full-spectrum CBD or pure CBD oil (THC-free)
  • 5 strengths to choose from
  • Carries up to 33.3 mg of CBD per mL (in the 1000 mg bottle)
  • Excellent value CBD oil
  • The hemp isn’t certified organic
  • No flavor options available
  • The company website is clunky and hard to navigate

6. NuLeaf Naturals

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 240 – 4850 mg
Available Flavors None
Potency 48.5 mg/mL
What I Like About NuLeaf Naturals

Nuleaf Naturals is one of the most popular CBD companies in the United States — most likely related to how long the company has been in the business of selling CBD. Nuleaf naturals were one of the first CBD companies to enter the mainstream market.

Despite the companies longstanding reputation, Nuleaf Naturals only sells one CBD oil. When you go to the website you’ll find a few different options, including a pet oil — but it’s important to understand that these are all the exact same full-spectrum extract, the only difference is the bottle sizes.

We love the simplicity of Nuleaf Naturals product lineup. The oils come with a decent potency of around 48 mg/mL, and just about every bottle size you can imagine. This makes it easy for everybody to find a product that works for them regardless of the budget.

With that said, if you have the cash, we highly recommend getting the larger bottle sizes in order to get the best value for your money.

You can choose between five different sizes:

  • Sourced from organic Colorado-grown hemp
  • Extracted using supercritical CO2
  • Made from a full-spectrum hemp extract
  • More expensive than the other brands in this ranking
  • Narrow product range

7. Charlotte’s Web

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 200 – 1800 mg
Available Flavors Mint Chocolate, Lemon Twist, Orange Blossom, Olive Oil
Potency 7 – 60 mg/mL

About Charlotte’s Web:

Charlotte’s Web is one of the pioneers in the American CBD industry. Established by the Stanley Brothers, the company has coined a reputation of a trustworthy manufacturer by helping now late Charlotte Figi with her treatment-resistant epilepsy. Although the company has recently received a warning letter from the FDA due to their health claims, they still have many faithful customers and a massive number of positive reviews on the web.

Charlotte’s Web CBD oil comes in several potencies: 200 mg, 500 mg, 1500 mg, and 1800 mg of CBD per bottle. The highest strength offers 60 mg of full-spectrum CBD per milliliter. There are two bottle sizes to choose from: 30 mL and 100 mL; Charlotte’s Web also has flavored variants of its CBD oil, including Lemon Twist, Orange Blossom, Mint Chocolate, and Olive Oil.

What could the company do better?

First off, they could change their extraction method because they use ethanol, which is less efficient than CO2 extraction. Secondly, and most importantly, the suspension in olive oil makes them taste a bit bitter — even in the flavored versions.

Pros:

  • One of the most reputable brands on the market
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Delicious flavored versions
  • Up to 1800 mg of CBD per bottle
  • Available in two sizes: 30 mL and 100 mL
  • Third-party tested for potency and purity

Cons:

  • Non-organic hemp
  • Ethanol extraction
  • Suspension in olive oil (bitter taste)
  • The company received a warning letter from the FDA in the past due to inappropriate health claims

8. cbdMD

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 300 – 7500 mg
Available Flavors Natural, Berry, Orange, Mint
Potency 10 – 250 mg/mL

About cbdMD:

cbdMD is another popular manufacturer that offers a wide range of CBD extracts, from tinctures to gummies to capsules, bath bombs, topicals, sleep aids, and pet products.

The brand offers a wide range of pure CBD oils, with up to 7500 mg of CBD per bottle. The highest potency comes with a whopping dose of 200 mg of pure CBD suspended in MCT oil for higher bioavailability and a smoother flavor. cbdMD also has three flavored CBD oils: Berry, Orange, and Mint.

Despite an impressive potency range, cbdMD uses broad-spectrum CBD in their products, which doesn’t evoke the full entourage effect. The higher potency may not necessarily mean better results in this case.

The company has high transparency standards; not only does cbdMD broadly describe their activity from farming to testing, but they also provide batch-specific certificates of analysis for their products, including the results for potency and common contaminants like pesticides, heavy metals, and residual solvents.

Pros:

  • US-grown, non-GMO hemp
  • CO2 extraction
  • THC-free
  • Up to 7500 mg of CBD per bottle
  • Batch-specific certificates of analysis

Cons:

  • Limited entourage effect due to the lack of THC
  • Most people don’t need such high doses of CBD in their routine

9. Medterra

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 500 – 3000 mg
Available Flavors Natural, Citrus, Mint Chocolate
Potency 16 – 100 mg/mL

About Medterra:

Medterra is a small craft company from California. The brand offers premium CBD oils in different spectra: full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and isolates. The potency of these products ranges between 500 mg and 3000 mg of CBD per bottle, which is a standard range. On top of the unflavored version, there are two flavored options: Citrus and Chocolate

Medterra prides itself on making the real full-spectrum CBD because each bottle of its full-spectrum CBD oil comes with 2 mg of THC. However, these products are only legal in the states that have legalized higher amounts of THC for recreational use. So, if you want to buy the company’s products in all 50 states, your options are limited to broad-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate. These provide more CBD per bottle — upwards of 1000 mg.

The entire Medterra’s product range is tested in a third-party laboratory for their CBD content and safety.

Pros:

  • Premium-grade CBD oils
  • Up to 3000 mg of CBD per bottle
  • Available as full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and isolates
  • Lab tested for potency and purity

Cons:

  • The “real” full-spectrum CBD oil isn’t available in all states
  • Some of the lab reports indicate higher CBD levels than stated on the bottle
  • No discounts for returning customers

10. Joy Organics

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 450 – 900 mg
Available Flavors Tranquil Mint, Fresh Lime, Summer Lemon
Potency 15 – 30 mg/mL

About Joy Organics:

Joy Organics holds the reputation of one of the most reputable CBD vendors in the industry. The company was established by a woman named Joy Smith, who has been using CBD oil to manage her problems with pain and sleep. After experiencing the benefits of CBD first-hand, she has decided to share her passion for cannabis with other health-conscious consumers.

The brand sells a range of broad-spectrum CBD products from certified organic hemp. They have many positive reviews all over the Internet; they also haven’t received any warning letter regarding health claims from the FDA — unlike many companies in this space (even the veterans like Charlotte’s Web).

The Joy Organics CBD oil features a broad-spectrum CBD formula in a modest potency range, from 450 to 900 mg of CBD per bottle. You can choose from three refreshing flavors: Summer Lemon, Fresh Lime, and Tranquil Mint. The strongest version of the Joy Organics CBD oil contains 30 mg of broad-spectrum CBD in every milliliter, which is a standard dose for most people who take CBD oil for daily supplementation.

In 2018, one of the company’s flavored CBD oils was found to contain a fungicide that is commonly sprayed on citrus fruit during independent lab testing. Fortunately, Joy Organics recalled the product shortly after this incident and implemented a new third-party testing system to make sure there are no flaws in the end product.

Pros:

  • Non-GMO, US-grown hemp
  • Supercritical CO2 extraction
  • Broad-spectrum CBD
  • THC-free
  • Delicious flavors

Cons:

  • A bit expensive
  • No high-strength oils

CBD Oil for Pain Management: Complete Guide for Beginners

Now that we’ve covered a few CBD oil options that are going to provide the best value for your money, let’s discuss how CBD is suggested to support chronic pain in the first place. We’ll also cover some of the most common ways people are using CBD oil for pain.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD stands for cannabidiol _ it’s one of the primary active ingredients in the cannabis plant. It’s completely non-psychoactive and offers a wide range of benefits to the human body.

CBD oil is a combination of a CBD extract, with a carrier oil to help dissolve and store the CBD. Most CBD oils use carrier oils like MCT oil, or hemp seed oil — which is then combined with CBD isolate, or full-spectrum hemp extract rich in CBD and other similar cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids like CBD are fat-soluble — which means they dissolve when mixed with oil, but won’t dissolve in water. By dissolving these compounds in an oil solution, the CBD becomes much easier to store and use. Instead of measuring out micrograms of CBD crystals or hemp resin, all you need to do is measure oil to get your dose of CBD. This can be done using a simple dropper that comes standard with most CBD oils.

Because of their ease of use, and long shelf-life, CBD oils have become the go-to method of using CBD and other hemp extracts.

You can also opt-out to use CBD-infused gummies if you wanted something discreetly, read our in-depth review on CBD Gummies to understand better.

How Does CBD Work?

Cannabis has been used for managing pain and inflammation for thousands of years.

The earliest records of the medical use of the herb date back to ancient China when the emperor Shen-Nung placed it among other therapeutic substances in the Chinese pharmacopeia (1). The leaves were wrapped around an injury as a poultice to reduce pain and discomfort, and reverse swelling and bruising.

Despite being a known medicine for a long time, scientists have only recently begun to unlock the mechanisms cannabis uses to achieve its important pain-killing benefits.

Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in 1992, CBD and other phytocannabinoids have been in the spotlight of modern medicine.

The endocannabinoid system is one of the most important neurochemical networks in the human body (2). It works by interacting with the endocannabinoid system — a series of hormones and receptors that help regulate over a dozen core processes in the human body. The active compounds in the cannabis plant are very similar to the naturally-produced hormones involved with our endocannabinoid system.

By interacting with the endocannabinoid system, CBD and other cannabinoids are able to modulate several key processes, such as:

  • Appetite
  • Immune function
  • Memory
  • Mood
  • Stress
  • Sensory perception (including pain)
  • Inflammation
  • Reproductive health
  • Nerve function
  • Sleep

How Can CBD Reduce Pain Transmission?

How does all of this relate to pain? The answer lies in the way pain is transmitted to the brain.

When we injure ourselves, cells in the immediate vicinity begin releasing compounds that trigger a cascade of inflammation and sensory activation — which is what triggers the pain transmission.

The pain signal is then sent to the spinal cord through a network of nerves distributed all around the body.

Once in the spine, the pain signal is sent through a gateway (opioid and vanilloid receptors) designed to limit the amount of signal that ends up in the brain for processing. This works like a border crossing. The border security decides whether or not you’re allowed to enter and what you can take with you.

In the context of pain, these gateways can limit the amount of pain signal that continues across the border to the brain. If more pain signal is allowed to pass, the brain perceives more pain. If the pain is stopped at the border, the brain perceives less pain.

Conventional pain medications work by activating the opioid receptors acting as a key gateway for pain transmission to the brain.

CBD has a similar effect, but through a different receptor is known as the vanilloid receptors. These vanilloid receptors are tasked with regulating a specific form of pain caused by either heat or inflammation. CBD has been reported to modulate this vanilloid receptor — leading to a reduction in the pain signals sent to the brain from inflammatory causes such as arthritis, muscle damage, or infection, to name a few.

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CBD has other ways it can limit pain transmission as well:

  • CBD may reduce inflammation, limiting the initial cause of pain in the body
  • CBD acts as an antioxidant, helping the body resist and recover from damage
  • CBD relaxes muscle fibers, reducing pain caused by muscle spasms and tightness

More research is needed to fully understand how CBD and other active cannabinoids can block pain. Every year dozens of new research papers are published in an attempt to paint a clear picture of how CBD works, how to get the most benefit from the supplement, and what its limitations are.

(Pain Transmission Pathway to the Brain)

Choosing CBD Oil Companies: How to Differentiate the Good From the Bad

CBD has become a lucrative business. Companies are selling a myriad of different CBD oils and other products in an attempt to cash in on the new health trend. This means there are a lot of excellent products coming to market, but it also means there’s a lot of trash as well. It’s important as a CBD user that you understand what makes a CBD oil good, and what makes it bad so you can avoid wasting your money, or worse — using CBD oils that contain harmful or damaging ingredients.

Let’s cover the most important points to remember when shopping for CBD oil online or in-store.

1. Check the Hemp Source

The source of the hemp used to make the oil is vitally important when it comes to determining which CBD oils are the best. The main reason comes down to the botany of the hemp plant itself.

Hemp is a bio-accumulator — which means it has the tendency to absorb compounds from the soil and accumulate them in its leaves, stems, and roots. The deep taproots of the hemp plant stretch far beneath the soil, pulling out and storing all the heavy metals and other elements it can find in the soil.

This aspect is in part why hemp is so nutritious, but it also means that plants grown in contaminated soils often contain contaminants that can be harmful to your health. Some of the worst offenders are heavy metals — which can build up in the body over time and lead to severe long-term health effects.

You want to avoid consuming heavy metals at all costs.

Poorly grown hemp could contain heavy metals, as well as other contaminants like mycotoxins, or pesticide residues that will end up in the CBD oil after all the processing is complete.

For this reason, it’s important to purchase CBD oil from companies that account for this effect. Only buy from company’s that make an effort to source hemp from organic farms, and take measures to assess every batch of hemp that enters the facility to determine heavy metal, microbial contaminant, and pesticide contamination.

The best hemp sources tend to come from states like Oregon, Colorado, or Alabama, as well as neighboring countries like Canada or Scandinavian countries. These places are all known for having high standards for hemp cultivation, and clean soils.

2. Look for CO2 Extracted Products

Once the company has the hemp, they need to extract the CBD from it. You can do this in many different ways using solvents like ethanol, methanol, hexane, ether, or butane. All of these solvents work to strip the active compounds from the hemp plant and can then be evaporated to leave behind a pure CBD-rich resin.

however, there’s a problem with these solvents.

Even in professional lab settings, it can be very difficult to remove all traces of these solvents from the final product. Most of these solvents are toxic to the human body, even in trace amounts.

Therefore, the best companies are using another method to strop the active ingredients from the starting hemp material. This method uses CO2 placed under high pressure. the high pressure and temperature control convert the CO2 into a phase that’s neither liquid nor gas. This special state is referred to as being supercritical.

Supercritical CO2 acts just like any other solvent, but with one key benefit — as soon as the pressure is relieved, the gas evaporates completely, leaving behind no harmful chemical residues.

when shopping for CBD oil, it’s ideal to look for a company that uses supercritical CO2 to extract the CBD rather than the toxic solvents mentioned above. Supercritical CO2 is very expensive and highly technical — but usually produces a far superior product in the end.

If a company is using harsh solvents like butane or propane (or they don’t tell you anything about their extraction methods), it’s a sign that you should look for another brand.

3. Ask for Third-Party Lab Reports

Every company has the option to send their products to an independent lab or third-party testing.

These laboratory tests check for the entire cannabinoid profile of the extract and are able to detect over 200 common contaminants.

Before a CBD product becomes available for sale, it should pass the laboratory test for potency and purity. If any inconsistencies are shown between different batches of the same product, the company should rework it and send it for analysis once again.

High-quality CBD companies will continually send each batch of product to a lab with no affiliation to the company (called a third-party or independent lab) for testing. These results are then published publicly on the website for customers to view.

The best companies will take this even one step further — adding a database and batch numbers on every bottle of CBD oil so you can view the results for your specific bottle of oil. Third-party testing is now an industry standard.

Always buy your CBD oil from companies that show third-party lab reports on their website. Only then will you know what’s inside the bottle before you even order a product. If the company is producing CBD oil that’s as high quality, as they say, there should be nothing to hide in these lab tests and they should be listed publicly on the company website. If you can’t find them on the site, you can ask customer service for these as well.

If these tests don’t exist, or you can’t track them down from the website or customer service — it’s best to avoid this company and move on to another that takes this important step seriously.

What the Research Says About Using CBD Oil for Pain:

Understanding how CBD works is no simple task. This compound is incredibly complex — working through a number of unrelated receptors around the body, interacting with enzymes, cell membranes, and various other cell structures. This makes studying CBD very difficult.

Nevertheless, there have been thousands of research papers published on medical marijuana — seeking to understand the interaction between cannabinoids like CBD and the human body. A lot of this research specifically focused on the effects of CBD on various forms and causes of pain. Let’s explore some of the results this research has yielded in the context of pain management.

1. CBD Oil for Chronic Back & Nerve Pain

The painkilling properties of cannabidiol have been most thoroughly studied in animal models, as well as a handful of human clinical trials.

One of the best studies we have available on the topic is a meta-analysis published in 2017. This analysis looked at 24 different clinical trials involving 1,334 patients over several years and demographics. These studies all used various forms of cannabis for treating chronic pain. The analysis reports that many of these studies showed a reduction in chronic pain scores by 50% or more (3) — suggesting the cannabis plant to be a potential treatment for chronic pain.

Another clinical trial looked at the effects of a combination of CBD to THC in the treatment of intractable cancer pain. This study found that twice as many people in the treatment group given CBD and THC had a 30% or more reduction in pain symptoms at the conclusion of the trial (6).

Even though more clinical trials on humans are needed to gauge how CBD affects specific forms of pain or other conditions, scientists believe the efficacy of CBD in treating chronic pain is related to its anti-inflammatory effects (3).

2. CBD Oil for Arthritis

CBD has had a lot of research as a potential alternative to prescription and non-prescription pain medications commonly used for alleviating arthritis pain.

Researchers have found a clear link between the endocannabinoid system and the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease associated with chronic pain and inflammation (4).

One of the key areas CBD is thought to support osteoarthritis specifically is through the effects on an enzyme known as 5-lipoxygenase — AKA 5-LOX. CBD has been shown to inhibit this enzyme (7), which converts fatty acids into pro-inflammatory compounds. These inflammatory messengers have been shown to be a key component in the underlying inflammation involved with osteoarthritis (8).

By reducing the underlying causes of arthritis pain, CBD is thought to reduce the overall burden of pain from the condition over the long term.

3. CBD and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Pain

Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, CBD is a potent neuroprotective — which is how experts believe CBD is able to relieve debilitating MS pain, —which affects roughly 50–70% of patients diagnosed with the condition.

A study conducted on animals at Cajan Institute tested the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD on mice the researchers wanted to find out if CBD can provide a reversed inflammatory response on those cells. After ten days, the researchers found a reduction in inflammatory markers with a rodent encephalitis model designed to imitate the impact MS has on the body (5).

More research is needed to see exactly how these effects are translated to humans. Currently, there are 23 clinical trials currently underway, or planned within the next 12 months seeking to explore the effects of CBD on MS.

4. CBD Oil in Sports: Injuries & Muscle Endurance

Cannabidiol can be applied in two different ways when it comes to pain and physical activities. For example, when you administer CBD orally in the form of oil as a post-workout, it helps alleviate the muscle inflammation that troubles athletes once they go beyond the edge again.

If, however, you’re suffering from an injury, it’s best to apply CBD topically. Its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties allow the cannabinoid to relieve pain and improve regeneration capacities.

Does CBD Have Any Side Effects?

The main reason why parents are so enthusiastic about CBD is that this cannabinoid is completely non-intoxicating, doesn’t cause addiction, and has only a few mild side effects when taken at excessive doses.

Research shows that even doses up to one and a half grams have no severe side effects on human health (9).

Despite being a notoriously safe supplement, there are some side effects of using CBD in high doses. Let’s cover the most common side effects people report from using CBD:

  • Anxiety
  • Brain fog
  • Reduced appetite
  • Mood changes
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Drowsiness or fatigue
  • Dry mouth
  • Nausea and vomiting

The most common side effect by far, like other forms of cannabis, is dry mouth. This is best managed by taking your CBD oil along with some juice like pineapple or orange juice.

Another common side effect is lowered blood pressure, which may trigger another unwanted reaction — lightheadedness. This side effect is important to consider if you suffer from low blood pressure already or are taking blood pressure-lowering medications.

Always consult your doctor before using CBD or other cannabis extracts if you’re taking prescription medications or have underlying medical conditions.

In Summary: Buying CBD Oil For Pain

As CBD becomes more popular around the world, scientists are publishing new research on cannabinoids on a near-weekly basis. As time goes on, experts are mapping out the complicated mechanisms CBD and other hemp derivatives are using to support both acute and chronic pain of all different origins.

Here are the main takeaways from the current research:

  • CBD inhibits inflammation at several different levels
  • CBD offers antioxidant support
  • CBD may relieve muscle tension and inflammation
  • CBD interacts with the vanilloid receptors in the brain responsible for regulating inflammatory pain transmission

When it comes to pain, CBD appears to target the cause of the problem instead of just masking its symptoms.

Getting relief on so many levels and without any harmful side effects or risk of addiction is the reason why CBD oil has become so popular over the past half a decade.

I hope this guide has managed to clear up any confusion regarding CBD oil and pain, and given you the insight necessary to find the right CBD oil for the job.

Have you tried CBD oil for chronic pain? Did you feel any difference? Let me know in the comments below!

References:

  1. Brand, E. J., & Zhao, Z. (2017). Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?. Frontiers in pharmacology, 8, 108.
  2. Alger B. E. (2013). Getting high on the endocannabinoid system. Cerebrum: the Dana forum on brain science, 2013, 14.
  3. Aviram, J., Samuelly-Leichtag, G. (2017) Efficacy of Cannabis-Based Medicines for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Pain Physician, 20(6), E755-E796.
  4. Bruni, N., Della Pepa, C., Oliaro-Bosso, S., Pessione, E., Gastaldi, D., & Dosio, F. (2018). Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(10), 2478.
  5. Elliott, D. M., Singh, N., Nagarkatti, M., & Nagarkatti, P. S. (2018). Cannabidiol Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of Multiple Sclerosis Through Induction of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 1782.
  6. Johnson, J. R., Burnell-Nugent, M., Lossignol, D., Ganae-Motan, E. D., Potts, R., & Fallon, M. T. (2010). Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Journal of pain and symptom management, 39(2), 167-179.
  7. Takeda, S., Usami, N., Yamamoto, I., & Watanabe, K. (2009). Cannabidiol-2′, 6′-dimethyl ether, a cannabidiol derivative, is a highly potent and selective 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Drug Metabolism and Disposition.
  8. Lascelles, B. D. X., King, S., Roe, S., Marcellin‐Little, D. J., & Jones, S. (2009). Expression and activity of COX‐1 and 2 and 5‐LOX in joint tissues from dogs with naturally occurring coxofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Journal of orthopaedic research, 27(9), 1204-1208.Chicago
Nina Julia

Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.

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